Dr Marco Springmann, who contributed to the Oxford University report, stated that he recognised that consumers may object to the government telling them ‘what they can and can’t eat’, but argued that the levy could make decision making easier for consumers. While any practice which enforces a financial cost to a consumer’s decision can be labelled ‘punitive’, that does not automatically mean that such an action will be unpopular or ineffective. The 5p charge on single-use plastic bags, which has been in force across the United Kingdom since 5 October 2015, enjoys 80% public support according to YouGov and reduced plastic bag use from ‘the big seven’ supermarkets (Asda, Marks and Spencer, Morrisons, Sainsburys, The Co-operative Group, Tesco and Waitrose) 86% in the time since the levy was implemented. The 5p levy does not go to the government, but is used by retailers to support ‘good causes’ such as the environment, the arts and health organisations. The government estimates that over the next ten years the levy will provide a benefit of £780 million to the UK economy, save £60 million in litter-cleaning costs and £13 million worth of carbon savings.